Colorectal Cancer Screening
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of U.S. cancer fatalities, with nearly 50,000 deaths annually. It also is one of the most avoidable types of cancer.
Up to 90% of colon and rectal cancers can be prevented through lifestyle changes as well as the early detection and removal of precancerous polyps and early-stage cancers — often long before any symptoms appear.
UCI Health polyp detection rates are among the highest in the nation. Our gastroenterologists are among the most experienced at performing colonoscopies safely and painlessly. Our experts also have pioneered artificial intelligence (AI) software that dramatically boosts the detection rate of cancerous and precancerous polyps to more than 90%.
Call our experienced UCI Health colorectal diseases team today at 844-824-2656 to schedule your colorectal cancer screening test.
Who should be screened?
Men and women beginning at age 45 should follow one of these regimens:
- An annual stool test
- An imaging test or a sigmoidoscopy every five years
- A colonoscopy every 10 years
People should begin screening earlier and more often if they have these colorectal cancer risk factors:
- A strong family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, especially in a parent or sibling who developed the condition before age 40, or in two first-degree relatives of any age
- A family with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
- A personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps
- A personal history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis)
How do you screen for colorectal cancer?
Several methods are used to detect colorectal cancers, including:
- Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) checks for microscopic blood particles in the stool. A tiny sample of stool is swabbed on a special card(s), which is sent to a laboratory. Avoiding drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen and other anti-inflammatory agents) or food that may irritate the bowel is required before testing.
- Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is similar to the FOBT, but requires no diet or medication restrictions before testing.
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy allows the physician to examine the lower third of the large intestine with a small video camera contained in a short, flexible tube that is inserted through the rectum.
- Barium enema with air contrast (also called a double contrast barium enema) involves pumping a chalky liquid called barium into the rectum to coat the bowel, followed by air to expand the rectum and colon. An X-ray of the abdominal area can then display any narrowing, blockages or other problems.
- Colonoscopy allows the physician to view the entire large intestine through a long, flexible tube similarly equipped with light and a video camera and also inserted through the rectum. The colonoscope enables the physician to see any abnormal growths, inflamed tissue, ulcers or bleeding in the colon walls, and to remove precancerous polyps or sample tissue for further examination.
In addition to developing AI technology to improve polyp detection rates, UCI Health experts also offer "underwater" colonoscopies, in which water is used instead of air to expand the large intestine for superior visualization.
View a video of a colonoscopy procedure ›
How do I choose a screening test?
Each has advantages and disadvantages. All screening tests help to find colorectal cancers before symptoms develop. Only colonoscopy helps prevent colorectal cancer. Your choice depends on personal preferences and goals.
FOBT and FIT are simple self-administered tests that can be sent to a lab. If either test is positive, a colonoscopy is usually required.
Sigmoidoscopy views only the lower one-third of the colon, missing about 50% of polyps and cancers. Barium enemas and virtual colonoscopies can help detect abnormalities along the entire bowel. All three procedures, like the stool tests, require follow-up with a standard colonoscopy for accurate diagnosis.
Colonoscopy combines the best method for finding polyps and early colorectal cancers. It is also the only screening test that allows the physician to identify and remove precancerous polyps before colorectal cancer develops. That is why colonoscopy is considered the “gold standard” of colorectal cancer testing.
A colonoscopy does require some advance preparation to cleanse the bowel, but the procedure is relatively simple, usually painless and performed on an out-patient basis.
Regular colonoscopy screenings have resulted in a reduction in colorectal cancers of more than 70% and lowered colorectal cancer deaths by more than 50%.
For more information or to schedule a colorectal screening appointment, please call 844-824-2656.