Nasal turbinates are normal outgrowths of the nasal sidewall bone that are covered in nasal cavity mucous membrane. Turbinate hypertrophy is when these outgrowths become enlarged and obstruct the nose.
The nasal cavity generally contains three sets of turbinates on each side:
- Superior turbinates
- Middle turbinates
- Inferior turbinates
Approximately 50 percent of nasal airflow passes between the middle and inferior turbinates. Therefore, abnormal enlargement of these two structures can be a culprit cause of nasal obstruction.
Enlargement of the inferior turbinate typically occurs in response to inflammation or may be developmental. Medicines such as nasal steroid sprays can help treat the inflammation.
In cases that do not improve with medication, procedures may be necessary to remove tissue from the turbinates.
One such procedure is a submucous resection to reduce the size of the inferior turbinate.
In this procedure, an endoscope is to remove bone and expanded tissue from the inside of the turbinate, therefore maximally preserving the functional lining of the nose.
Other turbinate treatments such as coblation are available, but have been shown to be less effective than submucous resection. Excision of part or all of the inferior turbinate is not recommended and may have a number of consequences, including:
- Severe bleeding requiring packing may occur during surgery. Packing is rarely required for submucous resection.
- "Empty nose syndrome” may develop with over aggressive removal, where though the nasal airway is wide open, the loss of lining that normally senses airflow leaves patients feeling like their nose is obstructed.
The middle turbinate may be enlarged due to a concha bullosa, or air-filled turbinate. This is a congenital condition, meaning that it is present at birth.
Nevertheless, a concha bullosa can be large and occupy a significant amount of space in the nose. Because of its location near sinus drainage pathways, sinusitis may be a consequence of or be worsened by a concha bullosa.
Endoscopic surgery is an effective way to precisely remove the concha bullosa.
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