What You Can Do to Prevent Atherosclerosis
Your good health has an enemy—atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is common. And its effects can be very serious. This condition can lead to strokes, heart attacks, and death. But you can take steps to protect yourself from this disease.
What is atherosclerosis?
The inside walls of healthy arteries are smooth and clean. This makes it easy to transport the blood your body needs. But arteries can become clogged. Fatty substances like cholesterol can stick to artery walls. These deposits are called plaque. Plaque can eventually slow or block the flow of blood. This blockage is atherosclerosis. It can affect any artery in your body. When atherosclerosis affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, it's called coronary artery disease. Two things may occur where plaque develops. Plaque may build up over time and narrow the heart artery. Or the plaque may break open (rupture), causing a blood clot to form on the plaque's surface. If either of these things occur, it may lead to a blockage of an artery. This can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
How is cholesterol measured?
When you should start having your cholesterol tested and how often you should have it tested depends on your risk factors and family history. Testing is done with a blood test. The test should measure total cholesterol, LDL ("bad") cholesterol, HDL ("good") cholesterol, and triglycerides. Talk with your healthcare provider about your target cholesterol levels.
Am I at risk?
These things put you at greater risk for atherosclerosis:
Having more than 1 risk factor can increase your risk even more. You can control most of the above risk factors. The following tips can help prevent atherosclerosis and improve your general health. If you have atherosclerosis, you may be able to stop it from getting worse.
If you smoke, get help to quit. Scientists have shown smoking damages the artery walls. This can lead to atherosclerosis. This makes it easier for plaque to build up. Smoking is even more risky when you have other risk factors such as high blood pressure or diabetes. If you want help quitting, talk with your healthcare provider. They have information on medicines, nicotine replacement products, and programs to make it easier. Also stay away from places where there is cigarette smoke. Research suggests that smoke from others can increase your risk for atherosclerosis. Stopping smoking doesn't mean just tobacco or cigarettes. E-cigarettes and vaping can both cause inflammation of the arteries. So can inhaling smoke from other nontobacco products.
Make changes to your diet. A diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol can raise your cholesterol levels. When you have high cholesterol, there may be more plaque to line artery walls and narrow your arteries. The American Heart Association recommends that you reduce the amount of meat, eggs, milk, and other dairy products in your diet. Check food labels to find the amount of saturated fat in a product. Also limit how much salt and sugar you eat. Be careful with processed foods such as frozen dinners. They can be high in fat, sugar, salt, and cholesterol. Choose lots of fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables, lean meats and fish, as well as whole-grains like oats and whole-wheat. Choose unsaturated vegetable oils like canola oil instead of saturated fats like butter.
Exercise regularly. Regular aerobic exercise can help fight atherosclerosis by reducing the amount of fat in your blood, lowering your blood pressure and cholesterol, and controlling your weight. It's never too late to start exercising. Brisk walking, swimming, and bicycling are good choices. It's OK to start slowly and work up to at least 2.5 hours of moderate-intensity exercise per week. For instance, you can exercise 30 to 40 minutes at a time, 4 to 5 days a week. But before you start, ask your healthcare provider's advice about what kind of exercise program is right for you.
Get regular checkups. Have your healthcare provider check your blood pressure and cholesterol. High blood pressure can further complicate atherosclerosis by causing artery walls to harden and thicken. This condition is called arteriosclerosis. Talk about your health and your risk factors for atherosclerosis with your provider.
Control diabetes with your healthcare provider's help. People who have diabetes develop atherosclerosis more quickly. If you have diabetes, control your blood sugar level carefully.
Will I know if I have it?
Symptoms appear only after the damage has been done. So don't wait for symptoms to occur before doing something about atherosclerosis. Begin by making the above lifestyle changes even if you feel well.
Together, you and your healthcare provider can decide what steps you need to take to stay healthy.